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Conservative politics in Ancient Sparta

27 Dec

Facing external pressures and internal revolts, Sparta turned inward to adopt a conservative political system that affected every aspect of Spartan life When we look at Spartan society and politics…

Source: Conservative politics in Ancient Sparta

Conservative politics in Ancient Sparta

14 Dec


Facing external pressures and internal revolts, Sparta turned inward to adopt a conservative political system that affected every aspect of Spartan life

When we look at Spartan society and politics, we see a system which was extremely conservative. To define what is meant by conservative, Roger  Scruton believed that for conservatives, the value of individual liberty was not absolute but was secondary to the authority of established government (Scruton, 1980), But we should also see a conservative political system as an attempt to preserve a way of life and institutions in the face of change.

In Sparta fears of external threats and internal unrest was at the heart of the ‘great rhetras’ of Lycurgus in the late 7th century B.C. But the main concern was that of a declining population and the inability of the state to meet these threats.  The importance of this declining population is seen in the start of Xenophon’s discussion of the constitution and the importance of women to undertake physical exercise so that they would produce vigorous and healthy children (Const. Lac. 1.4).

To ensure Sparta could maintain a strong standing army, it was the role of men to become soldiers and it was the role of women to produce healthy males that would become soldiers. Plutarch (Lyc 15) tells us that Lycurgus considered children to belong not exclusively to their fathers, but jointly to the city. To produce healthy children, polygamy was not only sanctioned by the state but husbands had no say in the child’s education. As Sarah Pomeroy (Pomeroy, p38).noted that in Sparta, the authoritarian patriarchy took over the husband’s exclusive rights to his own wife as well as denied his rights as a father.

A common theme which comes out of Xenophon’s writings on the Spartan constitution of Lycurgus is a fear of change. Even for Xenophon, writing 250 years after Lycurgus, the fear of a changing world is prevalent for Xenophon (Const. Lac. 14.2) laments that the Spartans in his own time were no longer content to live modest lives but preferred to ‘expose themselves to the corrupting influences of flattery as governors of dependent states.

An example of this fear of change in Sparta is the banning of all gold and silver coinage as told to us by Plutarch (Lyc, 9), who claims that Lycurgus wanted to remove inequalities and contrasts in Spartan society and instead used iron as the new currency. But H Michell believes that the ban against gold and silver could have originated much later in 404 B.C with the Spartan victory over Athens (Michell, p44) rather than the time of Lycurgus.

We know from Xenophon that Spartan citizens, excluding the perioikoi, were not only banned from engaging in business but that in the days of Lycurgus, it was illegal to live outside of Sparta. Xenophon (Const. Lac. 14.4) believes that the reason for this was to ‘keep the citizens from being demoralized by contact with foreigners’. Plutarch (Lyc.28) expands on this that foreigners bring in ideas with them and therefore there was the need to protect Sparta from harmful practices by ‘unhealthy immigrants’. This fear of outside influences corrupting Spartan’s escalated into xenophobia.

Extreme change in Spartan politics and society was guarded against through the political power of the council of elders or gerousia, an elected body of twenty eight men over sixty years old. We know from Plutarch that the gerousia was to act as a balance against both the tyranny of the kings and democracy. Although elected, Finley suggests that dominant families in Sparta controlled the appointments to the council in favour of their own members (Finley, p32). Although the assembly of Spartans voted on proposals, only the two kings and the council of elders could place and could veto decisions by the assembly.

Inside Sparta, we also see a society being held together against these forces of change through virtues of obedience and discipline that were to be instilled through training and embedded in the citizen’s character (Plut, Lyc. 13). From the age of 7, young males were taken away for compulsory state run training, the Agoge. The system was clearly approved by Xenophon (Const. Lac. 2.14)as he tells us that the system produces more ‘obedient, more respectful and more strictly temperate’ men. Xenophon believed that the decline of Spartan virtues following the Spartan victory over Athens would lead to Sparta’s decline.

But discipline and obedience were more than just admirable virtues as they were essential to being a Spartan citizen, an equal or homonoi. Those that did not obey the rules were considered cowards to be shunned from society. We know from Plutarch (Lyc 15) that Lycurgus ‘placed a certain civil disability for those that did not marry’ which meant that they were publicly shamed. But more harsh treatment awaited those considered to be cowards or to have led a ‘disgraceful life’ as they faced beatings and social exclusion.

Conformity to Spartan virtues and obedience was one of the primary goals of the Spartan education system. Discipline was enforced through regular beatings by older boys, Wardens and even older males in society. The use of older men, the erastai, to accompany teenage boys was used to educate young males in Spartan virtues. Enforcing the laws was the office of the Ephors, which Xenophon (Const. Lac. 8.4) tells us that the Ephors had wide powers in which they could issue fines. Even a king as Agis was not above the laws and was fined for refusing to eat at the public mess and attending the sacrifices.

The historian Xenophon lamented the decline of Spartan virtues and believed that shutting Sparta off from change and enforcing traditional values on her citizens was the key to Spartan military success. But Sparta was to pay a high price for avoiding change at the battle of Leucta against Thebes in 371 B.C.


Finley, M.I ‘Economy and Society in Ancient Greece’ published by Chatoo and Windus, London, 1981

Michell, H ‘The Iron Money of Sparta’ Phoenix, Volume 1, Spring 1947 pp42-44. Accessed: 05-12-2016 08:30 UTC

Plutarch ‘On Sparta’ translated by Richard A Talbert, Published by Penguin Group, 1988

Pomeroy, Sarah. B ‘Spartan Women’ published by Oxford University Press, 2002

Scruton, Roger ‘The Meaning of Conservatism’ published by Penguin Books, 1980

Xenophon ‘The Constitution of the Lacaedomanians


The Last Empress of China

25 Dec


Have you ever watched a movie or historical drama and ever wondered what happened to those characters? Or have you ever wondered is that what really happened?

One of the best movies i have ever seen is the 1987 film ‘‘The Last Emperor’ directed by Bernardo Bertolucci. The movie is the story of the Last Emperor of China, Aisin-Goro Pu Yi. 

Since the release of the movie, much has been written of Aisin-Gioro Pu-Yi, the Last Emperor of China. Pu-Yi became Emperor of China in 1908 at the age of three and lost his crown in the 1911 Revolution. Despite the Revolution, Pu-Yi was allowed to stay inside the Forbidden City, treated as an emperor by his various army of eunuch’s, courtiers and officials.  But Pu Yi was an emperor in name only.

I cannot help but wonder what ever happened to Pu Yi’s wife, the Empress Wan-Jung better known to the world as ‘Elizabeth’. The story of the Last Empress of China is just as tragic as that of her husband.

In the movie the ‘Last Emperor’, Wan Rong enters Pu-Yi’s life when in 1922 she was chosen to marry Pu-Yi. We know that Pu-Yi selected Wan-Jung from a collection of photographs placed before him. But what do we know about Wan-Rong? Pu Yi tells us that his original choice for Empress was overridden by the High consorts and he was persuaded to choose Wan Rong, also known as Wan Jung and Mu Hung. Pu Yi tells us that she was from a rich family, beautiful and the same age as Pu Yi.

But who was Wan Rong? Gobulo Wan Rong (“Beautiful Countenance”) was from one of Manchuria’s most prominent, richest families. Her father was Rong Yuan, the Minister of Domestic Affairs of the Qing Government and head of one of Manchuria’s most prominent, richest families.

We also know that Wan Rong’s mother was Xin Yu Heng Aisin-giorro, herself descended from the Qianlong Emperor (1735-1796). We know that as a child, Wan Rong had a tutor Chen Tseng-shou who would also be a life long friend. We also know that Wan Rong was highly educated at an American missionary school in Tianjin by the American tutor Isabel Ingram, where she had been given the Christian name of “Elizabeth.

The marriage beween Wan Rong and Pu Yi was not one of love but of necessity. Having come of age, Pu Yi was asked to choose a wife. Given a book of photographs of the eligible young women from wealthy chinese families, Pu Yi originally choose a young woman, Wen Hsiu as his wife. However objections to this choice by the imperial consorts forced Pu Yi to choose another. The second chice was that of Wan Rong. But Pu Yi was allowed to choose Wen Hsiu as his secondary consort or second wife.

The marriage of Wan Rong to Pu Yi seems to have gotten off to a rocky start when Pu Yi showed very little interest in Wan Rong on their wedding night and went to his own chambers. Pu Yi’s own attitude to his wedding was that ‘While all the hustle and busle went on around me one question kept running through my mind: ‘I have an empress and a consort; Im married. But how are things any different from before?’

pu yi and wan rong

With this mindset, Pu Yi showed very little interest in his new wife on their wedding night and returned to his own chambers. When i think about Wan Rong and Pu Yi, they seem to be more like brother and sister, or two friends. Pictures show Wan Rong and Pu Yi together happily. But were they ever happy as a married couple?

But Pu-Yi did not only have his wife Wan Rong to look after but also a secondary consort, Wen Hsiu.  How did the Empress Wan Rong feel about having to share with a second wife? Did Wan Rong and Wen Hsiu get along? According to Pu Yi there seems to have been a rivalry develop between Wan Rong and Wen Hsiu.


Pu Yi seems to have resented the money spent and the competition between the Empress and Wen Hsui. Pu Yi complained that Wan Jung knew even more ways of ‘wasting money on useless objects than I did’. Pu Yi also complained of the competition between Wan Jung and Wen Hsiu where if one had something, the other also had to have one. When the secondary consort Wen Hsiu asked for a divorce in 1931, Pu Yi admitted that ‘It appeared on the surface that Wen Hsiu was forced out by the ’empress’ Wan Rong. While this was not the whole truth it was certainly one of the reasonse for Wen Hsiu’s departure’.

After 1924 and their eviction from the Forbidden City, Pu Yi seems to have his mind soley on restoration to his throne. As he admitted that ‘I did not know what love was, and where husband and wife were equal in other marriages, to me wife and concubine were both the slave and tools of their master’.

The restoration of Pu Yi as the Emperor of the Puppet state of Manchukuo or Manchuria under Japanese control did little to improve the fortunes of either  Pu Yi or Wan Rong. Obsessed with becoming emperor again, Pu Yi became the wiling puppet of the Japanese, who held their own ambitions in China. The Japanese manipulated Pu Yi into believing that his life was in danger and that Pu Yi was in desperate need of Japanese protection. Little did Pu Yi realise that the Japanese had carefully set up incidents to scare Pu Yi towards Japan rather than British or American assistance.

Becoming emperor again in Manchukuo did little to improve their marriage. After Wen Hsui divorced Pu Yi in 1931, Pu Yi says that he felt a revulsion for Wan Rong, hardly ever talking to her or paying her any attention. As Pu Yi writes ‘So she never told me her of her feelings, her hopes and her sorrows’. Pu Yi knew that she had become addicted to opium and ‘behaved in a way that i could not tolerate’. What did Pu Yi mean by this?

According to the Manchu princess and japanese spy Yoshiko Kawashima (Better known to as history as ‘Eastern Jewel’), Wan Rong hated Manchuria where she suffered from the extreme climate and was subject to bad dreams and poor health.

Neglecting Wan Rong, Pu Yi married the 16 year old school girl Tan Yuling or ‘Jade Years’ in 1937 taking her as a secondary consort to replace Wen Hsiu. But what is interesting is that Pu Yi called Tan Yu-ling a punishment for Wan Jung. But Pu Yi did not see the new secondary consort as a wife but as necessary like an essential piece of palance furniture. As Pu Yi writes ‘She too was a wife in name only, and i kept her in the palace as i might have kept a bird until her death in 1942’. But it was also believed by Hiro Saga, Pu-Yi’s sister in law, that Pu Yi had a pageboy lover, a male concubine. Rumours of Pu-yi’s bisexuality plagued Pu-Yi for his whole life.

Addicted to opium, Wan Rong’s behaviour became bizarre. According to Edward Behr, Wan Rong’s opium addiction from july 1938 to july 1939 was 740 ounces of opium. Wan Rong never appeared at birthday or New Year parties and relations with Pu Yi had ceased while her own father stopped visiting her in Manchukuo because of what she had become. There is a story of a dinner party where Wan Rong ate a western style meal ravenously that was embarrasing to all that were there.

Pu Yi tells us that Wan Rong came to believe in luck and if she encountered anything unlucky she would blink or spit. Pu Yi says that Wan Rong made it such a habit to blink or spit that it was if she were ‘suffering from some mental illness’.

But there were also rumours that Wan Rong had an affair with her driver. After his second trip to Tokyo, Pu Yi was advised that his empress was pregnant by his driver, Li Tich-yu who gained opium for Wan Rong and smoked with her. Pu Yi gave him orders to leave town. When Wan Rong gave birth to a baby girl, it is believed that the Japanese doctor killed the baby with an injection. Edward Behr believes that from this moment Wan Rong lived in a constant opium daze.

Why did Wan Rong stay? Pu Yi wondered this himself in that the experiences of Wan Rong, ‘who had been neglected for so long would be incomprehensible to a modern Chinese girl’ and wondered what if Wan Jung would have divorced him. Pu Yi believes that where Wen Hsiu believed that ordinary family life was more important than wealth and power, that Wan Jung attached great significance to her position as empress and was prepared to be a wife in name only for the sake of it”.

Another contemporary of Wan Rong, the Manchu Princess ‘Eastern Jewel’ or Yoshiko Kawashima, wrote that she was proud to be the number one wife to China’s true emperor but was a victim of politics and her own snobbery as well as betrayal from the Japanese.


So what happened to the Last Empress of China, Wan Rong? Pu Yi wrote that when he left Manchokuo after the Japanese surrender her opium addiction was very serious. Wan Rong fled with her sister in law, Hiro Saga where they both fell into the hands of Chinese communist forces in Talitzou, Manchukuo. Wan Rong and Hiro Saga were moved to a prison in Yanji, Jilin.

Edward Behr recounts the story of what happened in prison. Suffering from opium withdrawals, Wan Rong begged for opium or halucinated as if she was back in the forbidden city. In Prison, Wan Rong became a curiosity for the local people who came to see the ‘Last Empress of China’. Unconscious in her cell, laying in a pool of urine and her own vomit, Wan Rong was helped by Hiro Saga who washed the dying empress until Hiro Saga and her daughter were moved leaving Wan Rong alone.

What did Pu-Yi think about her death? The last time Pu Yi saw Wan Rong appears to have been in Manchuria before he was to fly to Japan. As the aircraft was too small, he chose only Pu Cheih, his two brothers in law, three nephews and a doctor to go with him. Why wouldnt he have brought Wan Rong? Pu Yi seems to have been more preoccupied with saving his own life than any concern for his wife or anyone else.

It is believed that Pu-Yi did not learn of the death of his Empress Wan Rong until 1951 when Pu Yi was still imprisoned.  In his own words, Pu Yi tells us that ‘When our ways parted after the Japanese surrender her opium addiction was very serious and she was extremely weak; she died the following year in Kirin’. But what is interesting is Pu Yi’s words:

“I had married a total of four wives, or to use the terms employed them, one empress, one consort, and two minor consorts. But in fact they were not real wives, and they were only there for show. Although I treated them differently they were all my victims…….If her fate was not determined at her birth, her end was inevitable from the moment she married me”.

After a short period, Wan Rong died in prison reportedly from a combination of malnutrition and opium withdrawal in June 1946, at the age of 40. Wan Rong was buried in an unmarked grave at the prison. 

In October 2006, Empress Wan Rong’s younger brother, Gobulo Runqi (1912-2007), had a tomb built for Wan Rong at the Western Qing Tombs. Although the tomb did not contain the body of the Empress Wan Rong, the tomb did contain the personal hand mirror of Empress Wan Rong.

western qing tombs

The pictures used in this website is courtesy of the following websites: 

I acknowledge that pictures on this website are courtesy of metrosonus –

Suggested Reading

Behr, Edward ‘The Last Emperor’

Irons, Neville John ‘The Last Emperor’

Johnston, Reginald ‘Twilight in the Forbidden City’

Pu-Yi, Aisin-Gioro ‘From Emperor to Citizen: The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro Pu-Yi’


Empress Wan Rong – The Last Empress Consort of the Qing Dynasty in China’,